Tag Archives: PROTEIN

Protein

Posted on 14. Mar, 2011 by .

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Proteins are any of a group of complex organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur. Proteins, the principle constituents of the protoplasm of all cells, are of high molecular weight and consist of alpha-amino acids joined by peptide linkages. Different amino acids are commonly found in proteins, each protein having a unique, genetically defined amino-acid sequence, which determines its specific shape and function. They serve as enzymes, structural elements, hormones, immunoglobulins, etc. and are involved in oxygen transport, muscle contraction, electron transport, and other activities. The importance of adequate protein intake to proper immune function has been extensively studied. The most severe effects of “Protein-Calorie Malnutrition” (PCM) are on cell-mediated immunity, although all facets of immune function are ultimately affected. PCM is not, however, a single nutrient deficiency. It is normally associated with multiple nutrient deficiencies, and some immune dysfunctions attributed to PCM are most likely due to these other factors.

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amino acid

Posted on 15. Jan, 2011 by .

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AMINO ACIDS

One of a class of organic compounds containing the amino (NH2) and the carboxyl (COOH) group, occurring naturally in plant and animal tissues and forming the chief constituents of protein; many of them are necessary for human and animal growth and nutrition and hence are called Essential Amino Acids. Amino Acids are the building blocks of protein.

Some Primary Functions of Amino Acids:

Depending upon the source of dated reference material studied, some reports state “20” Amino Acids have been identified. More modern reference materials state “22” Amino Acids have been identified. In my personal research, identifying all possibilities available to me at this time, I have listed “28” Amino Acids / or Amino Acid Derivatives. Of my 28 listings, 22 have been identified as “Commonly Occurring” in Proteins.

In living things, Amino Acids serve as the primary unit of synthesis both of Tissue Proteins and other Non-Protein Nitrogenous Compounds.

Amino acids may undergo complex inner conversions in the body into macromolecules such as carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids, etc. Mineral co-factors also play an important role in that they interact with enzymes to assist with their catalytic activities. They are also capable of complexing with the individual free amino acids. For example, magnesium (MG2+) is important in the phosphorylation process or the transfer of high-energy phosphate groups into the body. Upon entering the body any free amino acids undergo complex inner-conversions into those substances necessary to maintain the metabolic pathways in the body. For example, Phenylalanine goes to Tyrosine and Arginine goes to Citrulline and Ornithine. (The Arginine pathway is a very important cycle.) Amino acid inner-conversions are not limited to other amino acids. Many free form amino acids play important roles as precursors for metabolic intermediaries. An example of this, Tyrosine’s and therefore Phenylalanine’s ability to give rise to two hormones Thyroxsine and Epinephrine. The Sulfur containing amino acids often precurse Taurine, which is an important bio-acid component. As W.C. Rose observed in 1938, “Perhaps undo emphasis was placed upon the quantity of protein ingestion and that scant consideration was given to possible difference in nutrient quality.”

Upon ingestion of foodstuff all nutrients and amino acids do not immediately diffuse into the surrounding tissue of the blood stream, but must first undergo a series of steps of biochemical reactions in the digestive tract. These reactions reduce the protein into its’ individual amino acids. Protein cleaving enzymes are activated in the digestive process, but in order for this cleavage to occur energy must be supplied on the part of the individuals metabolism to break the peptide bonds. The tissues then selectively absorb only those amino acids possessing the L configuration. “Methionine has been shown, however to be metabolically inter-changeable in both its’ L & D forms.” Rose and Wicksman 1955

By starting with a free amino acid mixture in which all amino acids are in their L conformation little digestion is necessary. The result is an energy saving and rapid absorption into the blood stream and surrounding tissues. “Amino acid supplementation of foods and feeds bring about many beneficial results. Of practical importance is the attainment of a better balance of protein and therefore a better balanced diet, an extension or savings of the available protein supply, and an improvement in the efficiency of the protein and food utilization. ” Rosenburg – 1959

ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS
Cystine Isoleucine Leucine Lysine
Methionine Phenylalanine Threonine Tryptophan
Tyrosine Valine Histidine*

ALL AMINO ACIDS
Aminoacetic Acid Alanine Arginine Aspartic Acid
Carnitine Citrulline Cysteine Cystine
GABA Glutamic Acid Glutamine Glutathione
Glycine Histidine Hydroxyproline Isoleucine
Leucine Lysine Methionine Ornithine
Phenylalanine Proline Serine Taurine
Threonine Tryptophan Tyrosine Valine

thank you and references
http://pages.prodigy.net/naturedoctor/protein.html

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PROTEIN

Posted on 15. Jan, 2011 by .

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Proteins are any of a group of complex organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur. Proteins, the principle constituents of the protoplasm of all cells, are of high molecular weight and consist of alpha-amino acids joined by peptide linkages. Different amino acids are commonly found in proteins, each protein having a unique, genetically defined amino-acid sequence, which determines its specific shape and function. They serve as enzymes, structural elements, hormones, immunoglobulins, etc. and are involved in oxygen transport, muscle contraction, electron transport, and other activities.

The importance of adequate protein intake to proper immune function has been extensively studied. The most severe effects of “Protein-Calorie Malnutrition” (PCM) are on cell-mediated immunity, although all facets of immune function are ultimately affected. PCM is not, however, a single nutrient deficiency. It is normally associated with multiple nutrient deficiencies, and some immune dysfunctions attributed to PCM are most likely due to these other factors. Partial deficiencies of dietary vitamins produce a comparatively greater depression on immune functions than do partial protein deficiencies. Non-the less, adequate protein is essential for optimal immune function.

High protein diets are not recommended for individuals with kidney or liver disease. There are no other known side effects.

Pay attention to the protein package. Fish, poultry, and beans are your best bets

Around the world, millions of people don’t get enough protein. Protein malnutrition leads to the condition known as kwashiorkor. Lack of protein can cause growth failure, loss of muscle mass, decreased immunity, weakening of the heart and respiratory system, and death.

All Protein Isn’t Alike

Some of the protein you eat contains all the amino acids needed to build new proteins. This kind is called complete protein. Animal sources of protein tend to be complete. Other protein sources lack one or more “essential” amino acids—that is, amino acids that the body can’t make from scratch or create by modifying another amino acid. Called incomplete proteins, these usually come from fruits, vegetables, grains, and nuts.

Vegetarians need to be aware of this. To get all the amino acids needed to make new protein—and thus to keep the body’s systems in good shape—people who don’t eat meat, fish, poultry, eggs, or dairy products should eat a variety of protein-containing foods each day.

thank you and references
http://pages.prodigy.net/naturedoctor/protein.html
http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/what-should-you-eat/protein-full-story/index.html#protein_package
http://www.veganhealth.org/articles/protein

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Amino acid

Posted on 10. Nov, 2010 by .

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Amino acid are over twenty.Each one of them is a little different. Amino acids are used in every cell of your body and are used to build the proteins you need to survive. All organisms need some proteins, whether they are used in muscles or as simple structures in the cell membrane. Even though all organisms have differences, they still have one thing in common, the need for basic chemical building blocks.

Amino acids play central roles both as building blocks of proteins and as intermediates in metabolism. The 20 amino acids that are found within proteins convey a vast array of chemical versatility.The precise amino acid content, and the sequence of those amino acids, of a specific protein, is determined by the sequence of the bases in the gene that encodes that protein. The chemical properties of the amino acids of proteins determine the biological activity of the protein. Proteins not only catalyze all (or most) of the reactions in living cells, they control virtually all cellular process. In addition, proteins contain within their amino acid sequences the necessary information to determine how that protein will fold into a three dimensional structure, and the stability of the resulting structure. The field of protein folding and stability has been a critically important area of research for years, and remains today one of the great unsolved mysteries. It is, however, being actively investigated, and progress is being made every day.

Amino acids form the proteins that in turn form muscle tissue and increase fat metabolism. Look in the cupboard of just about any serious athlete, and you’ll likely find some kind of amino acid supplement or protein drink designed to help them increase strength, build muscle tissue, or otherwise enhance their athletic performance. However, amino acids are not just important to those who wish to “bulk up.” Without amino acids, all cellular development, respiration, or renewal would cease.

There are just 22 amino acids, but without them all of the metabolic processes necessary to spark and sustain animal life would simply not be possible. Long chains of amino acids combine to form up to 55,000 different proteins, and each protein is used to produce the enzymes, neurotransmitters, and hormones that support normal growth and functioning of all bodily organs, including the heart, brain, liver, kidneys, and sex organs.

There are two types of amino acids: essential amino acids and nonessential amino acids. Essential amino acids cannot be manufactured in the body (you get them by eating foods that contain protein), and nonessential amino acids are manufactured within the body by combining two or more essential amino acids. However, adequate amounts of dietary protein are needed to form all 22 amino acids—if you don’t get enough protein your body won’t have the 9 essential amino acids it needs to make up the other 13 nonessential amino acids.

references and thank you
http://www.chem4kids.com/files/bio_aminoacid.html
http://www.biology.arizona.edu/biochemistry/problem_sets/aa/aa.html
http://www.vitaminstuff.com/amino-acids.html

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