Archive for 'Supplement'


Posted on 11. May, 2015 by .


MP$$$$639PWhat is L carnitine

Carnitine, derived from an amino acid, is found in nearly all cells of the body.Made from lysine and methionine. There are a couple of different forms of carnitine, such as acetyl-L-carnitine and L-carnitine tartrate, and we’ll look at which forms you should be taking and when. In this article, unless otherwise stated, “carnitine” will be used to refer to L-carnitine tartrate.

Carnitine plays a critical role in energy production. It transports long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria so they can be oxidized (“burned”) to produce energy. It also transports the toxic compounds generated out of this cellular organelle to prevent their accumulation. Given these key functions, carnitine is concentrated in tissues like skeletal and cardiac muscle that utilize fatty acids as a dietary fuel.The body makes sufficient carnitine to meet the needs of most people. For genetic or medical reasons, some individuals (such as preterm infants), cannot make enough, so for them carnitine is a conditionally essential nutrient.

How does it work?

L-carnitine helps the body produce energy. It is important for heart and brain function, muscle movement, and many other body processes.Take Carnitine to Burn Fat: Carnitine is a potent fat burner because it is responsible for the transport of fats into the cells to be used for energy in the body. By raising the level of muscle carnitine, you support the fat burning process, and because your body becomes more efficient at processing fuel, it will increase your energy levels.

Elevating carnitine will also improve physical performance by burning more fat, sparing glycogen, clearing muscle lactate, and optimizing hormone levels.

Carnitine Fights Visceral Belly Fat

Visceral belly fat is one of the toughest fats to lose once you’ve got it, and it causes numerous health problems. Once you begin to gain visceral fat around the belly, it will lead to fat gain within the organs such as the liver, the heart, or even in muscle.

Fat gain in the liver leads to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, while epicardial fat is a type of visceral fat that is deposited around the heart and is considered a metabolically active organ, altering heart function.

Raising your carnitine levels will fight this visceral fat gain because it increases fat burning, which has the effect of taking triglycerides and low-density lipoproteins out of the system so that they don’t build up causing high cholesterol and atherosclerosis. A new research study in the journal Food and Chemical Toxicology illustrates this.

Researchers gave a carnitine supplement to mice who were fed a high-fat diet in order to make them gain weight. In comparison to a group of mice fed a placebo, the carnitine group gained substantially less visceral and subcutaneous fat (fat that is right below the surface of the skin that you can pinch with your fingers). The placebo group exhibited the beginning stages of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and atherosclerosis, neither of which were evident in the carnitine group.

Serious kidney disease. Most research suggests that taking L-carnitine by mouth or intravenously (by IV) can improve red blood cell counts during hemodialysis. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved L-carnitine for the treatment and prevention of L-carnitine deficiency in people with serious kidney disease who are undergoing hemodialysis.

L-carnitine deficiency. The FDA has approved L-carnitine for treating L-carnitine deficiency caused by certain genetic diseases.

Chest pain (angina). Taking L-carnitine by mouth seems to improve exercise tolerance in people with chest pain. Taking L-carnitine along with standard treatment also seems to reduce chest pain and improve exercise ability in people who have chest pain but not blocked arteries.

Alzheimer’s Disease and Memory Impairment

The evidence is mixed as to whether carnitine is useful in treating Alzheimer’s disease. Several early studies showed that acetyl-L-carnitine, might help slow down the progression of Alzheimer’s disease, relieve depression related to senility and other forms of dementia, and improve memory in the elderly. People should take carnitine for Alzheimer’s and other forms of dementia only under the supervision of their health care provider.

High thyroid hormone levels (hyperthyroidism). Taking L-carnitine seems to improve symptoms such as rapid or pounding heartbeat, nervousness, and weakness in people with high thyroid hormone levels.

Male infertility. Most research shows that taking L-carnitine, alone or in combination with acetyl-L-carnitine, increases sperm count and sperm movement in men with fertility problems.

Preventing side effects caused by valproic acid (Depacon, Depakene, Depakote, VPA), a seizure medication. Using L-carnitine intravenously (by IV) can prevent the side effects of valproic acid.

Heart failure. Taking L-carnitine by mouth seems to improve symptoms and increase exercise ability in people with heart failure. Taking a specific product containing L-carnitine and coenzyme Q-10 (Carni Q-Gel) also appears to improve symptoms of heart failure.

Inflammation of the heart (myocarditis). Taking L-carnitine by mouth seems to reduce the risk of death from myocarditis.

Use Carnitine for Better Skin
A topical carnitine cream can improve the health of your skin by decreasing the amount of oil released by the pores. A new study in the Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology found that a carnitine cream increased the amount of fat that entered the cell, which decreased the oil secreted by the skin.

This led to less oily skin and a smoother overall appearance. It also indicates the value of using carnitine to improve the transport of carnitine across the cellular wall to be burned for fat because Beta fat oxidation, or burning, was enhanced.

L-carnitine is LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth and when used as an injection, with the approval of a healthcare provider. It can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, stomach upset, heartburn, diarrhea, and seizures. It can also cause the urine, breath, and sweat to have a “fishy” odor.

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Posted on 23. Dec, 2011 by .


Fiber became a household word back in 1970s when Dr. Denis Burkitt, a man nicknamed the Fiber Man, and his colleagues made “the fiber hypothesis” that states that fiber can prevent certain diseases. Through their work in Africa, they discovered that diseases that were common in the Western cultures were not common there. These included heart attacks and high blood pressure (cardiovascular diseases), obesity and diabetes (metabolic disorders), intestinal problems (constipation, diverticulosis, diverticulitis, gallstones, appendicitis, hemorrhoids, polyps, and colon cancer), varicose veins and blood clots (deep vein thrombosis). The primary dietary difference was the high intake of fiber and low intake of refined carbohydrates in the African population. Burkitt also noted the emergence of these diseases in the United States and England after 1890 following the introduction of a new milling technique that removed fiber from whole grain flour to produce white flour.

While the exact mechanism by which fiber might prevent these diseases remained unknown, Burkitt made a discovery about the beneficial impact that fiber had on bowel movements and how that related to certain diseases. Burkitt noted that he was able to predict the number of a patient’s hospital visits from the size and frequency of their bowel movements. Those with high intakes of fiber had more frequent and bulky stools and had less illness. Burkitt proposed that fiber’s health benefits stemmed from its ability to increase stool bulk and speed up how quickly stool moves through the colon. Since these findings, controversy remains. A great deal of research has both supported and disputed what Burkitt had discovered.

What is fiber?

Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It is in fruits, vegetables and grains. It is the part of the plant that your body can’t digest. Yet it is an important part of a healthy diet. It adds bulk to your diet and makes you feel full faster, helping you control your weight. Fiber helps digestion and helps prevent constipation.

You can get fiber from whole grains, beans, nuts, fruits and vegetables. You should add fiber to your diet slowly. Increasing dietary fiber too quickly can lead to gas, bloating and cramps.

A variety of definitions of fiber exist. In an attempt to develop one definition of fiber that everyone can use, the Food and Nutrition Board assembled a panel that came up with the following definitions:

* Dietary fiber consists of nondigestible carbohydrates and lignin that are intrinsic and intact in plants. This includes plant nonstarch polysaccharides (for example, cellulose, pectin, gums, hemicellulose, and fibers contained in oat and wheat bran), oligosaccharides, lignin, and some resistant starch.

* Functional fiber consists of isolated, nondigestible carbohydrates that have beneficial physiological effects in humans. This includes nondigestible plant (for example, resistant starch, pectin, and gums), chitin, chitosan, or commercially produced (for example, resistant starch, polydextrose, inulin, and indigestible dextrins) carbohydrates.

* Total fiber is the sum of dietary fiber and functional fiber. It’s not important to differentiate between which forms of each of these fibers you are getting in your diet. Your total fiber is what matters.

You may also hear fiber referred to as bulk or roughage. Call it what you want, but always remember that fiber is an essential part of everyone’s diet. While fiber does fall under the category of carbohydrates, in comparison, it does not provide the same number of calories, nor is it processed the way that other sources of carbohydrates are.

This difference can be seen among the two categories that fiber is divided into: soluble and insoluble.

* Soluble fiber dissolves in water to form a gel-like substance. Sources of soluble fiber are oats, legumes (beans, peas, and soybeans), apples, bananas, berries, barely, some vegetables, and psylluim.

* Insoluble fiber increases the movement of material through your digestive tract and increases your stool bulk. Sources of insoluble fiber are whole wheat foods, bran, nuts, seeds, and the skin of some fruits and vegetables.

Fiber for weight control

There is some evidence that “bulking up” could lead to slimming down. In a recent study of more than 1700 overweight and obese men and women, those with the highest fiber intake had the greatest weight loss over 24 months. Results from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) from 1994 -1996 also supported the relationship between a high-fiber intake and lower body weight. One of the reasons that fiber may have an impact on body weight is its ability to slow the movement of food through the intestines. The gel-like substance that soluble fibers form when they dissolve in water causes things to swell and move slower in the intestines. This increase in time that foods stay in the intestines has been shown to reduce hunger feelings and overall food intake. It has also been shown to decrease the number of calories that are actually absorbed from the ingested food. One study showed an increase in the number of calories that were excreted in the stools when high-fiber psyllium gum-based crackers were given in comparison to low-fiber crackers. Whenever fewer calories are taken in, or more are excreted, weight loss will generally occur

Fiber for controlling diabetes

A high-fiber diet may be just what the doctor ordered to get your blood sugars under control. Keeping our blood sugars stable is a goal that we would all benefit from. If you don’t have type 2 diabetes, this could be the way to prevent it. If you do have it, this could be the way to keep it under control. The best time to address type 2 diabetes is before it has developed. Research has shown that high-fiber diets can help prevent this form of diabetes. The most recent study on done on overweight and obese men and women without diabetes showed reductions in blood sugar and insulin with the use of a high soluble fiber supplement. A German clinical trial reported that eating fiber-enriched bread for only three days improved insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese women by 8%. If a diet intervention this small can have that great of an impact, you can imagine what years of following a high-fiber diet, filled with vegetables, fruits and whole grains would do. The good news for those with diabetes is that increasing your fiber now can also prevent long-term complications from diabetes. Soluble fiber has been found to produce significant reductions in blood sugar in 33 of 50 studies testing it. In clinical intervention trials ranging from two to 17 weeks, consumption of fiber was shown to decrease insulin requirements in people with type 2 diabetes. If you have ever had to inject yourself with insulin, you can appreciate how much easier and less painful it would be to increase your fiber intake to avoid the need for insulin injections.

Fiber for preventing heart disease

If we were to sit down and have a “heart to heart,” I would tell you that one of the best things that you could do on your own to protect your heart is to follow a high-fiber diet. Numerous studies have produced compelling evidence to support this. In a Harvard study of over 40,000 male health professionals, researchers found that a high total dietary fiber intake was linked to a 40% lower risk of coronary heart disease, compared to a low-fiber intake. Another study of over 31,000 California Seventh-day Adventists found a 44% reduced risk of nonfatal coronary heart disease and an 11% reduced risk of fatal coronary heart disease for those who ate whole wheat bread compared with those who ate white bread. One minor change in their diets provided a protective effect that could save their lives.

Another strong predictor of heart disease is abnormal blood cholesterol, LDL, and/or HDL levels. It appears that soluble fiber reduces the absorption of cholesterol in your intestines by binding with bile (which contains cholesterol) and dietary cholesterol so that the body excretes it. The oat bran and bean fiber intervention trials where dietary fiber supplementation was combined with a low-fat diet shows that reductions in total cholesterol levels ranged from 8-26%. Other studies have shown that 5 to 10 grams of soluble fiber a day decreases LDL cholesterol by about 5%. All of these benefits will occur regardless of changes in dietary fat. In a trial with low fat and low fat plus high fiber groups, the group consuming high fiber exhibited a greater average reduction (13%) in total cholesterol concentration than the low fat (9%) and the usual diet (7%) groups. It seems that you don’t have to change everything to gain something.

Fiber for bowel disorders

“Roughing” up your diet can be the key to healthier bowels. With the introduction of white flour came an increased prevalence of bowel disorders such as diverticulosis, diverticulitis, hemorrhoids, polyps, colon cancer, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In Burkitt’s early research into this phenomenon, he made reference to the fact that the typical African stool specimen was large and soft, and that stool transit times were rapid, compared to the puny hard fecal deposits and slow transit times of Europeans. In one of his studies, they conducted elaborate experiments in which volunteers in England, India, and Africa had their bowel movements timed and their stools weighed. Among the results of the study: People living under primitive conditions, on diets high in insoluble fibers, passed from 2½ to 4½ times as much feces as sailors in the Royal Navy, and were relatively free of many of the diseases studied. Current research supports the early findings. Studies have shown that a high-fiber diet (particularly fruit and vegetable fiber) help to prevent diverticulosis and will decrease the risk of complications if you have it. Although the mechanism by which fiber may be protective against diverticulosis is unknown, several hypotheses have been proposed.

For example, some scientists report that fiber helps by decreasing transit time, increasing stool weight, and decreasing pressure within the colon. The same has been found for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The current guidelines for the treatment of IBS include following a high fiber diet. The bulk that fiber provides is thought to help prevent the painful spasms often associated with IBS and aid in comfortable regularity. There is still a great deal of debate about the role of fiber in preventing colon cancer. The studies that look for connections with people’s diets and their health have seen a trend in low-fiber diets and people with colon cancer. The studies that tried to intervene by putting people on high-fiber diets in order to prevent colon cancer or polyps did not find the same protective relationship. Burkitt’s work and a more recent study showed that a daily stool weight greater than 150 grams needs to be achieved for the protective affect against colon cancer. This was not taken into account in many of the studies and may be the reason the protective effect was not found.

Fiber for preventing or treating constipation

Fiber may just be the way to go when constipation is the problem. Although what constitutes constipation is not well established, diets that increase the number of bowel movements per day, improve the ease with which a stool is passed, or increase stool bulk are considered beneficial. Both soluble and insoluble fibers are necessary for regular bowel movements. Oftentimes, people use over-the-counter supplements to assist with regularity. Unfortunately, these supplements only provide soluble fiber. Studies support the benefits of the combination of soluble and insoluble fiber in alleviating constipation, but only with the consumption of an adequate fluid intake. High amounts of fiber, without fluids, can aggravate, rather then alleviate constipation. The way to go is to eat foods high in both soluble and insoluble fibers and drink lots of water to flush it down.

A high-fiber diet has many benefits, which include:

* Helps maintain bowel integrity and health. A high-fiber diet may lower your risk of developing hemorrhoids, and small pouches in your colon (diverticular disease). Some fiber is fermented in the colon. Researchers are looking at how this may play a role in preventing diseases of the colon.
* Lowers blood cholesterol levels. Soluble fiber found in beans, oats, flaxseed and oat bran may help lower total blood cholesterol levels by lowering low-density lipoprotein, or “bad,” cholesterol levels. Epidemiologic studies have shown that increased fiber in the diet can reduce blood pressure and inflammation, which is also protective to heart health.
* Helps control blood sugar levels. Fiber, particularly soluble fiber, can slow the absorption of sugar, which for people with diabetes can help improve blood sugar levels. A diet that includes insoluble fiber has been associated with a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
* Aids in weight loss. High-fiber foods generally require more chewing time, which gives your body time to register when you’re no longer hungry, so you’re less likely to overeat. Also, a high-fiber diet tends to make a meal feel larger and linger longer, so you stay full for a greater amount of time. And high-fiber diets also tend to be less “energy dense,” which means they have fewer calories for the same volume of food.
* Uncertain effect on colorectal cancer. Evidence that dietary fiber reduces colorectal cancer is mixed — some studies show benefit, some show nothing and some suggest increased risk. If you’re concerned about preventing colorectal cancer, adopt or stick with a colon cancer screening regimen. Regular testing for and removal of colon polyps can prevent colon cancer.

How Much Fiber?

The average American consumes 14 grams of dietary fiber a day, which is considerably less than the recommended level. The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends 14 grams of fiber per 1000 calories consumed. So, if you consume a 2,500 calorie diet, you should eat approximately 35 grams of fiber per day. Also, fiber intake may vary depending on age and gender.

While the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans serves as a general guide to healthy eating, the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) provide standard recommended amounts for nutrients. In 2002, the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences Research Council issued DRIs for fiber (see Table 1). Previously, no national standardized recommendation existed. The new DRIs represent desirable intake levels established using the most recent scientific evidence available.
Table 2: Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for Fiber.

Age g/day Fiber

1-3 years 19
4-8 years 25

9-13 years 31
14-18 years 38
19-50 years 38
51+ years 30

9-13 years 26
14-18 years 26
19-50 years 25
51+ years 21

<18 years 28 18+ years 28 Lactation <18 years 29 18+ years 29 For many people, meeting the DRI for fiber may require changes in their eating habits. Eating several servings of whole grains, fruits, vegetables and dried beans each day is good way to boost fiber intake. Anyone with a chronic disease should consult a physician before greatly altering a diet. If you are not used to eating high fiber foods regularly, these changes should be made gradually to avoid problems with gas and diarrhea. Also, drink plenty of water to minimize intestinal gas. If problems with gas continue to be an issue, gas-reducing over-the-counter and prescription drugs are available. How can I get more fiber in my diet? The amount of fiber you should get from your diet each day depends on your age and sex. Men 50 years of age and younger should consume at least 38 grams of fiber per day, while men older than 50 years of age should aim for at least 30 grams of fiber daily. Women 50 years of age and younger should consume at least 25 grams of fiber per day, while women older than 50 years of age should aim for at least 21 grams of fiber daily. Try the following ideas to increase the fiber in your diet: * Eat at least 2 cups of fruits and 2 1/2 cups of vegetables each day. Fruits and vegetables that are high in fiber include: o Beans such as: + navy (1/2 cup = 9.5 grams), + kidney (1/2 cup = 8.2 grams), + pinto (1/2 cup = 7.7 grams), + black (1/2 cup = 7.5), + lima (1/2 = 6.6 grams), + white (1/2 cup = 6.3 grams) + great northern (1/2 cup = 6.2 grams). o Artichokes (1 artichoke = 6.5 grams) o Sweet potatoes (1 medium sweet potato = 4.8 grams) o Pears (I small pear = 4.4 grams) o Green peas (1/2 cup = 4.4 grams) o Berries such as raspberries (1/2 cup = 4.0 grams) and blackberries (1/2 cup = 3.8 grams) o Prunes (1/2 cup = 3.8 grams) o Figs and dates (1/4 cup = 3.6 grams) o Spinach (1/2 cup = 3.5 grams) o Apples (1 medium apple = 3.3 grams) o Oranges (I medium orange = 3.1 grams) * Replace refined white bread with whole-grain breads and cereals. Eat brown rice instead of white rice. Eat more of the following foods: o Bran muffins o Oatmeal o Bran or multiple-grain cereals, cooked or dry o Brown rice o Popcorn o 100% whole-wheat bread * When eating store-bought foods, check the nutrition information labels for the amounts of dietary fiber in each product. Aim for 5 grams of fiber per serving. o Add 1/4 cup of wheat bran (miller's bran) to foods such as cooked cereal, applesauce or meat loaf. o Eat beans each week. Start slowly When you first add fiber to your diet you may notice bloating, cramping or gas. But you can prevent this by making smaller changes in your diet over a period of time. Start with one of the changes listed above, then wait several days to a week before making another. If one change doesn't seem to work for you, try a different one. Be sure to drink more fluids when you increase the amount of fiber you eat. Liquids help your body digest fiber. Try to drink 8 glasses of no- or low-calorie beverages, such as water, unsweetened tea or diet soda each day. thank you and references

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(Alpha lipoic acid–ALA)กรดแอลฟาไลโปอิค

Posted on 22. Dec, 2011 by .


กรดแอลฟาไลโปอิค (Alpha lipoic acid–ALA) เรียกสั้นๆว่ากรดไลโปอิก หรือกรดไทออกติก (Thioctic acid), เมต้าวิตามิน (meta vitamin) เป็นกรดไขมัน ต้านอนุมูลอิสระ ที่ร่างกายสร้างได้เองตามธรรมชาติ แต่เมื่ออายุมากขึ้นหรือภาวะอ่อนแอ ทำให้การสร้างลดลง

ALA พบในสิ่งมีชีวิตทุกชนิด มีปริมาณเล็กน้อย สามารถกำจัดอนุมูลอิสระได้สูง และช่วยซ่อมสร้างวิตามินซี และอี ตลอดจนโปรตีนที่ถูกอ็อกซิไดส์ได้ด้วย

มีคุณสมบัติพิเศษคือ ละลายได้ทั้งในน้ำ และน้ำมัน จึงสามารถดูดซึม แทรกซึมเข้าสู่เซลล์ทั่วร่างกาย ตลอดจนผ่านแนวกั้นในสมอง (blood brain barrier) ได้ดี ทำให้ร่างกายนำไปใช้ประโยชน์ได้เต็มที่


พบ ALA ได้ในมันฝรั่ง เนื้อแดง เครื่องใน ยีสต์ ผักโขม บล็อกโคลี่ ผักปวยเล้ง และอาหารประเภทเนื้อวัวไม่ติดมันหรืออวัยวะต่าง ๆ เช่น ตับ, หัวใจ และไต แต่อาจไม่เพียงพอเพื่อผลการรักษา บางคนจึงต้องใช้เสริมจากภายนอกในการบำบัดโรคต่างๆ


1 กรดอัลฟาไลโปอิก เป็นสารอาหารประเภทหนึ่ง ที่มีลักษณะคล้ายวิตามิน โดยทำหน้าที่เป็น Coenzyme ในขบวนการเผาผลาญน้ำตาล และสารอาหารอื่น ๆ ให้เป็นพลังงาน โดยปกติ ร่างกายเราสามารถสังเคราะห์ กรดอัลฟาไลโปอิคได้เองอยู่แล้ว ในปริมาณคงที่ ซึ่งร่างกายเราผลิตได้ในจำนวนที่เพียงพอ ต่อการช่วย ไมโตคอนเดรีย (mitochondria) เปลี่ยนกลูโคสไปเป็นพลังงานเท่านั้น ไม่ได้ผลิตให้เหลือพอ ที่จะใช้ต่อต้านความเสื่อมชราของเซลล์ หรือเพิ่มภูมิคุ้มกันโรคให้กับร่างกาย

2 ALA มีขนาดโมเลกุลและภาวะแขนคู่ ที่เคลื่อนตัวได้คล่อง และพร้อมให้อิเลคตรอนได้ง่าย ทำให้ละลายได้ทั้งในน้ำและน้ำมัน มีประสิทธิภาพในการต้านอนุมูลอิสระสูง อีกทั้งช่วยส่งเสริม หรือซ่อมสารต้านอนุมูลอิสระตัวอื่น เช่น วิตามินซี วิตามินอี กูลตาไธโอน โคคิวเทน ให้กลับมาใช้งานซ้ำได้ หรือเป็นสารทดแทนกรณีสารต้านอนุมูลอิสระใดขาดแคลนไป มีบทบาทได้ทั้งภายในเซลล์ และที่เยื่อหุ้มเซลล์ ALA เป็นสารต้านออกซิเดชั่นที่ทรงพลัง ในการต่อสู้กับอนุมูลอิสระ ที่ปรากฏอยู่ใน ไมโตคอนเดรีย (mitochondria) ภายในเซลล์ นักวิทยาศาสตร์บางคนเชื่อว่า อนุมูลอิสระภายใน ไมโตคอนเดรีย (mitochondria) มีบทบาทสำคัญในการทำให้คนแก่ตัวลง จึงตั้งทฤษฎีว่า ถ้าให้สารยับยั้งออกซิเดชั่น อย่างกรดไลโปอิค ก็น่าชะลอความแก่ได้ กรด ไลโปอิคยังช่วยรีไซเคิลวิตามินอี และ วิตามิน ซี ให้กลับเป็นรูปเดิม หลังจากวิตามินอี และ วิตามินซี ไปล้างพิษอนุมูลอิสระเรียบร้อยแล้ว

3 ALA ทำงานส่งเสริมอินซูลิน ในการช่วยกวาดเก็บ นำมาใช้ และเก็บกักน้ำตาลในเลือด มีการศึกษาที่แสดงว่า oxidative stress มีผลในการเกิดอาการดื้อต่ออินซูลิน ที่เซลล์กล้ามเนื้อ แต่เมื่อเซลล์ได้รับ ALA จะได้รับการปกป้องจากอนุมูลอิสระได้ ALA ช่วยให้ผู้ป่วยเบาหวานตอบสนองต่ออินซูลิน เพิ่มประสิทธิภาพของอินซูลิน ต่อน้ำตาลในเลือด ทำให้ใช้บำบัดผู้ป่วยที่เป็นเบาหวาน

4 Diabetic neuropathy ประสาทถูกทำลายเนื่องจากเบาหวาน จากน้ำตาลในเลือดสูง หรือ oxidation ต่อเส้นประสาทนั้น วิตามิน B12 ช่วยไม่ได้มาก แต่ALA ใช้ได้ผลดีจากการที่ ALA มีส่วนร่วมในเมตาโบลิซึมของพลังงาน ช่วยการไหลเวียนเลือดตามหลอดเล็กๆ (เช่น เส้นที่ไปเลี้ยงเส้นประสาท) ดีขึ้น แล้วยังช่วยให้การใช้น้ำตาลในเลือดดีขึ้นด้วย ซึ่งคุณสมบัติเหล่านี้ นอกจาก ALA แล้ว ก็ยังมีวิตามินอี และ Capsaicin ที่ได้จากพริก

5 ต่อต้านการอักเสบอันเป็นเหตุให้เกิดสิว ช่วยรักษาการอักเสบไม่ให้สิวนั้นอักเสบลุกลามมากไป ALA มีฤทธิ์ทำความสะอาดและทำให้ผิวบริสุทธิ์ โดยการกำจัดของเสียออกจากร่างกาย ดังนั้นจึงสามารถป้องกันการเกิดสิว และยังช่วยเพิ่มประสิทธิภาพในการไหลเวียนของเลือดไปยังประสาท ดังนั้นผิวก็จะได้รับสารอาหารที่จำเป็นในการบำรุง ช่วยให้ผิวพรรณดูสดใสขึ้น กรดอัลฟ่าไลโปอิคช่วยต้านการอักเสบระดับปานกลาง เนื่องจากมีปริมาณของ Sulfur เป็น องค์ประกอบด้วย จึงช่วยลดการบวมและอาการผิวแดงจากสิว กรดอัลฟ่าไลโปอิคนั้นถือเป็นสารต้านอนุมูลอิสระที่ดีมากตัวหนึ่ง เนื่องจากสามารถละลายได้ทั้งในน้ำและน้ำมัน ด้วยเหตุนี้ร่างกายจึงสามารถดูดซึมได้ง่ายและสามารถเลี้ยงไปทั่วร่างกาย

ุ6 ALA ใช้รักษาอาการปวดและชาตามนิ้วมือนิ้วเท้า จากระบบประสาทถูกทำลาย ซึ่งอาจเกิดจากอนุมูลอิสระทำลายเซลล์ประสาท เมื่อระดับน้ำตาลในเลือดสูงผิดปกติ เกิดการเติมออกซิเจน (oxygenation) รวมทั้งอาการประสาทเสื่อมจากเบาหวาน ต้านการอักเสบ

7 ALA มีความสามารถจับตัวกับโลหะหนักที่เป็นพิษต่อร่างกาย เช่น ตะกั่ว แคดเมียม สารหนู ปรอท แล้วขับออกจากร่างกาย (Chelation) อีกทั้งคุณสมบัติที่ซึมผ่านแนวกั้นสมองได้ทำให้เชื่อว่าน่าจะมีบทบาทเข้าไป ช่วยนำโลหะหนักออกมาขับทิ้ง ผ่านตับ หรือไตได้

8 คุณสมบัติที่เพิ่มระดับกลูตาไธโอนในตับ ช่วยให้ตับขับล้างสารพิษตกค้าง ได้อย่างมีประสิทธิภาพ อีกทั้งช่วยบำรุงตับให้แข็งแรง

9 ALA ทำงานร่วมกับเอนไซม์ในร่างกาย เพื่อเร่งกระบวนการสร้างพลังงาน และจัดเป็นสารต้านอนุมูลอิสระฤทธิ์แรง ช่วยให้อนุภาคที่ไม่เสถียร และเป็นผลร้ายต่อร่างกาย มีสภาพเป็นกลาง ช่วยควบคุมระดับของธาตุเหล็ก และทองแดงซึ่งเป็นแร่ธาตุจำเป็นของร่างกายให้อยู่ในระดับที่พอดี

10 ALA ช่วยปกป้องตับมิให้ถูกอนุมูลอิสระทำลาย ช่วยกำจัดสารพิษออกจากร่างกาย มีการใช้สารนี้รักษาตับอักเสบ ตับแข็ง และโรคตับอื่นๆ รวมทั้งสารพิษตะกั่ว หรือโลหะหนักอื่นๆ และสารเคมีจาก อุตสาหกรรม เช่น carbon tetrachloride

11 ในสัตว์ทดลองยังพบประโยชน์ของ ALA ช่วยยับยั้งต้อกระจก เพิ่มความจำ และปกป้องเซลล์สมองจากการขาดเลือด
มีบางข้อมูลชี้ว่า ALA ยับยั้งการเพิ่มจำนวนของไวรัสจากคุณสมบัติต้านอนุมูลอิสระ เสริมภูมิคุ้มกัน และการทำงานของตับ ช่วยชะลอการเกิดหลอดเลือดแข็งตัว ซึ่งมักพบในผู้ป่วยเบาหวาน

12 การศึกษาผลของ ALA ในอัลไซเมอร์ และพาร์คินสัน บ่งชี้ว่า ALA น่าจะมีประโยชน์

13 ตลอดจนใช้คุณสมบัติต้านอนุมูลอิสระ ช่วยเรื่องอ่อนเพลียเรื้อรัง สะเก็ดเงิน ซึ่งรุนแรงจากอนุมูลอิสระ

14 พบว่า ALA ช่วยป้องกันการกระตุ้นอองโคยีน (oncogene) ซึ่งเป็นยีนควบคุมการเกิดมะเร็ง จากอนุมูลอิสระ และสารก่อมะเร็ง

15 อาการปวดแสบร้อนในปาก เหมือนกินพริก เข้าใจว่าอารมณ์แปรปรวนในวัยทอง การลดลงของฮอร์โมน หรือมีโรคของระบบประสาท หนึ่งในสามเกิดหลังทำฟัน การติดเชื้อยีสต์ (candida albicans) การขาดวิตามินบีต่างๆ และสังกะสี พบว่าการให้ ALA ชนิดออกฤทธิ์ช้าๆ ช่วยลดอาการได้ เข้าใจว่า ALA ไปทำลายอนุมูลอิสระที่กดดันประสาท และเพิ่มความเร็วของสัญญาณประสาท ALA เคยใช้กับการเจ็บปวดร้าวของประสาทไซอาติก (sciatic pain) ได้ผล จึงนำมาใช้กับอาการแสบร้อนในปาก
มีการทดลองให้ ALA เทียบกับยาหลอก พบว่า 97% มีอาการดีขึ้น, 74% ดีขึ้นอย่างเห็นได้ชัด, 13% หายขาด, 10% ดีขึ้นเพียงเล็กน้อย ในขณะที่กลุ่มยาหลอกมีอาการดีขึ้นเพียงเล็กน้อย 40% การติดตามผล 1 ปีให้หลัง พบว่ากลุ่มที่ได้ ALA 3 ใน 4 มีอาการดีขึ้นในระดับที่ดี ส่วนกลุ่มยาหลอกกลับมีอาการแย่ลง

16 มีงานวิจัยเกี่ยวกับการใช้ ALA เพิื่อการลดน้ำหนัก โดย ALA มีผลกับเอนไซม์ APK (activated protein kinase enzyme) ซึ่งพบในสมองส่วนไฮโปทาลามัส น่าจะมีหน้าที่สำคัญต่อความอยากอาหาร APK เพิ่มขึ้นเมื่อ เซลล์ต้องการพลังงานมากขึ้น ซึ่งอาจไปเพิ่มความอยากอาหาร

คนอ้วนส่วนมากไม่ตอบสนองต่อ Leptin ซึ่งนำมาใช้เป็นฮอร์โมนต่อต้านความอ้วน แต่ ALA พอที่จะให้ความหวังได้ โดยสัตว์ทดลองมีอัตราเผาผลาญสูงขึ้นด้วย กลูโคสและไขมันถูกเผาผลาญมากขึ้น

ในกรณีเบาหวาน ที่ดื้ออินซูลิน ย่อมดีขึ้น โดยลดการสะสมของไขมันที่กล้ามเนื้อ และเซลล์ไขมัน

ที่ไมโตคอนเดรีย เป็นตำแหน่งที่ ALA ทำงานในฐานะปัจจัยร่วม(Co factor)ในการย่อยกลูโคสและไขมัน

ALA เป็นตัวช่วยวิตามินทุกชนิด เช่น ไทอะมีน ไรโบฟลาวิน กรดแพนโธทีนิค และไนอาซิน ในการเปลี่ยนคาร์โบฮัยเดรท โปรตีน และไขมันจากอาหารให้กลายเป็นพลังงาน

ALA เป็นปัจจัยสำคัญใน internal cellular burn หรือการเผาผลาญภายในไมโตคอนเดรีย จึงช่วยเพิ่มอัตราเผาผลาญของเซลล์ เพิ่มพลังงาน และความสามารถในการซ่อมแซมของเซลล์

17 โรคประสาทที่ไม่ได้มาจากเบาหวาน ALA ก็น่าจะมีบทบาทจากการเป็นสารต้านอนุมูลอิสระตัวยง อีกทั้งไปเพิ่มระดับกลูตาไธโอนภายในเซลล์ ทำให้ช่วยซ่อมเซลล์ประสาทที่ถูกทำลายเสียหายให้ฟื้นกลับมาใหม่

การไม่เป็นพิษของ ALA จึงน่าจะผสมผสานเข้าไปเป็นส่วนหนึ่งของโปรแกรมโภชนาการ ร่วมกับวิตามินบีรวม แมกนีเซียม และกรดไขมันจำเป็น

ยังแนะนำให้ใช้ ALA ในโรค multiple sclerosis อาการพิษจากโลหะหนัก, ต้อกระจก และต้อหิน โรคตับจากพิษสุรา


ALA มักเป็นแคปซูล ขนาด 100 – 200 มก. แต่ขนาดที่ควรใช้คือ 600 – 800 มก. มีการศึกษาระบุว่าควรทาน 1800 มก.x 3 สำหรับกรณีที่รุนแรง
การใช้ปริมาณเล็กน้อย วันละ 20 – 150 มก. มักไม่มีผลข้างเคียงใดๆ

ขนาดที่ใช้แก้ปัญหาคือ 100 – 200 มก. X 3 ครั้ง / วัน ควรค่อยๆ เพิ่มจากน้อยไปหามาก การใช้ปริมาณมากในทันที อาจทำให้น้ำตาลในเลือดต่ำ เกิดอาการหน้ามืด เวียนศีรษะ ท้องไส้ปั่นป่วน หรือเกิดผื่นแดงตามผิวหนังได้บ้าง หากมีอาการก็ให้ลดขนาดหรือหยุดใช้ได้ แต่ก็น่าจะแสดงว่าร่างกายสนองต่อผลการรักษา

แพทย์ผู้รักษาที่เชี่ยวชาญอาจใช้ขนาดสูงได้ถึงวันละ 1800 มก.

ข้อพึงระวัง ยังไม่เคยมีการทดสอบในหญิงตั้งครรภ์หรือกำลังให้นมบุตร การใช้ปริมาณสูงจึงควรระวัง

อาจเสริมฤทธิ์ของกรด แกมมา–ไลโนเลนิค (GLA) และ / หรือ acetyl–L–carnitine ให้ผลดีมากยิ่งขึ้น ลดน้ำตาลในเลือดมากขึ้น ทำให้อาจต้องลดขนาดยาที่ใช้

อาจออกฤทธิ์ร่วมกับ T4 ไปชะลอการเปลี่ยนเป็น T3 จึงควรทานห่างกันหลายชั่วโมง

thank you and reference

1. รีดเดอร์สไดเจสท์ คู่มือฉลาดใช้วิตามินแร่ธาตุ และสมุนไพร ISBN 974-93003-51
3. วารสารอาหาร + สุขภาพ แปลโดย พอ.หญิงศรีนวล เจียจันทร์พงษ์ และคณะ ฉ.97/2545 115/2548, 127/2550
4. นิตยสารใกล้หมอ ก.พ. 2546
5 กินอยู่เพื่อสุขภาพ เล่ม 2
6 คัมภีร์สุขภาพ โดย อ.พนิดา

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Alpha Lipoic Acid

Posted on 07. Jun, 2011 by .


Alpha lipoic acid (also known as lipoic acid, thioctic acid, or ALA) is a fatty acid found naturally inside every cell in the body. It’s needed by the body to produce the energy for our body’s normal functions. Alpha lipoic acid converts glucose (blood sugar) into energy.

Alpha lipoic acid is also an antioxidant, a substance that neutralizes potentially harmful chemicals called free radicals. Alpha-lipoic acid has been called a “universal antioxidant” because it is both water- and fat-soluble, and thus can penetrate tissues composed mainly of fat, such as the nervous system, as well as those made mainly of water, unlike the more common antioxidants vitamins C and E, and it appears to be able to recycle antioxidants such as vitamin C and glutathione after they have been used up. Glutathione is an important antioxidant that helps the body eliminate potentially harmful substances. Alpha lipoic acid increases the formation of glutathione.Many studies have been conducted confirming the health benefits of alpha-lipoic acid, including recent findings that ALA offers neuroprotective and possibly cognitive enhancing effects.

In the cells of the body, alpha-lipoic acid is converted into dihydrolipoic acid. Alpha-lipoic acid is not the same as alpha linolenic acid, which is an omega-3 fatty acid that may help heart health (See also: Alpha linolenic acid. Confusion can arise because both are sometimes abbreviated ALA.

Besides taking ALA for its general benefits as an antioxidant, studies have shown that alpha lipoic acid can help with the following conditions:

• Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)
• Coronary Heart Disease
• Metabolic Syndrome (high blood pressure and elevated cholesterol
• Peripheral Neuropathy (caused by diabetes and other conditions, such as Lyme
disease, alcoholism, shingles, thyroid disease and kidney failure)
• Diabetes (improving glucose metabolism and helping diabetics utilize insulin better)
• Liver Disease
• Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer (increasing long-term survival)
• Impaired Brain Function (as a treatment for stroke and other brain disorders
involving free radical damage, including Alzheimer’s disease)
• Effects of Aging (improving blood flow and enhancing immune function, restoring
levels of glutathione, a protective antioxidant and detoxification compound)
• Degenerative Diseases (ALA is a strong anti-inflammatory agent)
• Glaucoma and Cataracts

Hypertension (Elevated Blood Pressure); Coronary Heart Disease or Metabolic Syndrome (high blood pressure and elevated cholesterol): If you have hypertension or a build-up of plaque in your arteries from elevated cholesterol, you may benefit from alpha lipoic acid. The Boston University School of Medicine found that a combination of lipoic acid with another nutrient – acetyl-L-carnitine -helps lower blood pressure by increasing the width of arteries that had been constricted due to the build-up of plaque. Lipoic acid also improves the function of the mitochondria-a crucial part of the cell–involved in proper coronary vascular function.

Peripheral Neuropathy

: If you suffer from burning, pain, numbness or itching in your legs and feet caused by peripheral neuropathy, alpha lipoic acid may ease your symptoms. This condition can be caused by diabetes and other conditions, such as Lyme disease, alcoholism, shingles, thyroid disease and kidney failure. Certain injuries can also cause the above symptoms, as well as nutritional deficiencies and chemotherapy.

In 2003, researchers at the Mayo Clinic discovered that patients with diabetic neuropathy who received high doses of intravenous alpha lipoic acid had a threefold improvement in pain, numbness and other symptoms, compared with those treated with a placebo. Lipoic acid also seemed to increase blood flow and oxygen to the nerves, actually improving their condition. Used in Europe for over 30 years in treating diabetes, lipoic acid may also help cells better metabolize glucose. Many more studies are now being conducted in the U.S. and around the world to determine the role of ALA in helping diabetics utilize insulin.

Liver Disease

: Alpha lipoic acid was first used in the 1970s as a treatment for various forms of hepatitis by Burton M. Berkson, MD, MS, PhD, from the National Institutes of Health. The researchers administered alpha lipoic intravenously to 79 people with acute and severe liver damage at medical centers across the United States, and 75 recovered full liver function. In 2006, Dr. Berkson also reported using lipoic acid to increase the long-term survival of a patient suffering from metastatic pancreatic cancer.

Before 1977, if you suffered from severe liver disease – often caused by ingesting a toxin (mushroom poisoning, for example) – your only hope for recovery was a liver transplant. But in 1977, Dr. Berkson administered alpha lipoic acid intravenously to a patient dying from liver disease. The patient surprised doctors and not only recovered, but was free of liver disease 30 years later.

Brain Function and Stroke

Able to pass easily through the brain, alpha lipoic acid helps protect the brain and nerve tissue. It is currently being investigated as a treatment for stroke and other brain disorders involving free radical damage, including Alzheimer’s disease. Preliminary research shows that animals treated with lipoic acid suffered less brain damage and had four-times greater survival rate after a stroke than animals who didn’t receive this supplement. More research is needed to understand whether this benefit applies to people as well.

Anti-Aging Compound:

In May, 2007, Science Daily reported that alpha lipoic acid seemed to slow down the process of aging in animals by improving blood flow and enhancing immune function, as well as positively affecting several other factors involved in aging. Research findings were presented at Oregon State University (OSU) in a conference on Diet and Optimum Health. “The evidence suggests that lipoic acid is actually a low-level stressor that turns on the basic cellular defenses of the body, including some of those that naturally decline with age,” said Tory Hagen, an LPI researcher and associate professor of biochemistry and biophysics at OSU. “In particular, it tends to restore levels of glutathione, a protective antioxidant and detoxification compound, to those of a young animal. It also acts as a strong anti-inflammatory agent, which is relevant to many degenerative diseases.”

Eye Benefits

Free radicals are a major cause of cataract formation, according to Marc Grossman, O.D. Because high glucose levels also increase cataract formation, diabetics have three to four times the risk of developing cataracts over people without diabetes, Grossman states. Alpha-lipoic acid may help lower glucose levels by increasing insulin sensitivity. A Russian study published in the October-December 1995 issue of “Vestnik Oftamologii” reported that 45 percent to 47 percent of people in groups treated with lipoic acid showed improvement. Researchers attributed the improvement to antioxidant properties of LA and its influence on ocular metabolism


Alpha-lipoic acid is eliminated rapidly from cells, according to the Linus Pauling Institute, so its benefits may not be sustained. Since LA may lower glucose levels, people with diabetes who take anti-diabetic drugs could experience hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, when taking LA. Allergic reactions such as rash, hives and itching may also occur when taking supplements. Do not take LA without discussing its use with your doctor. Safe use in pregnancy has not been established.

Some of the leading causes of blindness, such as cataracts and macular degeneration, are associated with cellular damage from free radicals, researchers from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine reported in the September 2010 issue of “Ophthalmic Research.” For diabetics, reducing blood glucose levels helps prevent diabetic retinopathy, another leading cause of blindness. Supplemental LA may not only reduce damage to DNA in cells from free radicals, but may also improve blood glucose levels.


Alpha-lipoic acid can lower blood sugar levels, and its ability to kill free radicals may help reduce pain, burning, itching, tingling, and numbness in people who have nerve damage caused by diabetes (called peripheral neuropathy). Alpha-lipoic acid has been used for years for this purpose in Europe, and at least one study found that intravenous (IV) doses of alpha-lipoic acid helped reduce symptoms. However, the evidence indicating that taking alpha-lipoic acid orally will help is weaker. Most studies have been small and poorly designed. One 2006 study did show benefit from taking alpha-lipoic acid for diabetic neuropathy compared to placebo.

Taking alpha-lipoic acid does appear to help another diabetes-related condition called autonomic neuropathy, which affects the nerves supplying the heart. One study found that 73 people with autonomic neuropathy improved when taking 800 mg of alpha-lipoic acid orally compared to placebo.


Some preliminary studies suggest alpha-lipoic acid may be helpful in treating glaucoma, but there is not enough evidence to say for sure whether it is beneficial. In test tubes, alpha-lipoic acid appears to inhibit growth of the HIV virus, but it isn’t known whether the supplement would have the same effect in people.
Dietary Sources:

A healthy body makes enough alpha-lipoic acid. It is also found in red meat, organ meats (such as liver), and yeast (particularly Brewer’s yeast).
Available Forms:

Alpha-lipoic acid supplements are available as capsules. It may also be given by injection under the supervision of a health care provider.
How to Take It:


Because alpha-lipoic acid has not been studied for pediatric use, do not give it to children.


Alpha-lipoic acid can be purchased in doses of 30 – 100 mg tablets. There are no established recommended doses.

* General antioxidant support: 20 – 50 mg per day
* Diabetes and diabetic neuropathy: 800 mg per day in divided doses


Because of the potential for side effects and interactions with medications, you should take dietary supplements only under the supervision of a health care provider.

No evidence suggests whether or not alpha-lipoic acid is safe for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding, so such women should not take alpha-lipoic acid.

Foods High in Alpha Lipoic Acid

  • Some foods that are good sources of alpha lipoic acid include broccoli, beef, spinach, yeast, and various organic meats, like heart and kidney.

Side effects are generally rare and may include skin rash.

Alpha-lipoic acid can lower blood sugar levels, so people with diabetes or hypoglycemia should take alpha-lipoic acid only under the supervision of their doctor. (See “Interactions” section.)

Results of animal studies suggest that people who are deficient in thiamine (vitamin B1), a condition often associated with alcoholism, should not take alpha-lipoic acid.
Possible Interactions:

If you are currently being treated with any of the following medications, you should not use alpha-lipoic acid without first talking to your health care provider.

Insulin and drugs that lower blood sugar — Apha-lipoic acid can combine with these drugs to further reduce blood sugar levels, resulting in hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). Tell your doctor before taking alpha-lipoic acid and monitor your blood sugar levels closely; your doctor may need to adjust your medication doses.

Thyroid-regulating medications, Levothyroxine — Apha-lipoic acid may lower levels of thyroid hormone. Blood hormone levels and thyroid function tests should be monitored closely in people taking thyroid hormones who are also taking alpha-lipoic acid.
Alternative Names:

Dihydrolipoic acid; Lipoic acid; Lipolate; Thiotic acid

thank you and references

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collagen hydrolysate supplement

Posted on 27. Dec, 2010 by .


Why take a collagen hydrolysate supplement?
The stress placed on our joints means that they are prone to damage in the longer term. Cartilage is worn out and sometimes even lost. Unfortunately the body is sometimes unable to product sufficient new cartilage to counteract this loss. By taking a collagen hydrolysate supplement we can provide our body with the essential building blocks needed for the formation of joint cartilage.
Collagen hydrolysate is used as a nutritional supplement for the prevention and treatment of degenerative diseases like osteoarthritis.
How quickly will I notice a difference?
Acute pain, morning stiffness and restriction of articular function are symptoms of degenerative diseases like osteoarthritis. Patients taking 10grams of collagen hydrolysate per day see significant improvements after 6 to 12 weeks.
If taken preventatively, 10 grams of collagen hydrolysate per day will reduce the risk of degenerative disorders.
Why is collagen hydrolysate specifically important for cartilage in comparison to other proteins?
The amino acid composition of collagen hydrolysate corresponds exactly to that of collagen – the predominant protein in cartilage.
Does collagen hydrolysate have any other benefits?
As well as improving joint mobility people have reported a gain in hair thickness and quality of skin and nails.
Which persons can benefit from collagen hydrolysate?
Collagen hydrolysate is an ideal nutritional supplement for anyone wanting to stay fit and well or who want to reduce risks of degenerative joint disease by constitutional nutrition. Collagen hydrolysate administration has an important role for use in individuals at risk from the development of joint degeneration. Such at-risk populations include older individuals, particularly those individuals aged 50 years and older; individuals who are overweight; individuals whose occupational activities predispose to osteoarthritis, including jobs involving repeated knee-bending (e.g. carpenters, floor layers, and painters), textile workers, miners and dock workers; individuals participating in extensive non-occupational physical activities including recreational runners/walkers, cyclists, gardeners, soccer/football players; individuals with a past history of significant joint injury such as fracture or ligamentous injury; and individuals with a family history suggesting a genetic predisposition to osteoarthritis.

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Natural Joint Dietary Supplement To Increase Joint Flexibility

Posted on 27. Dec, 2010 by .


Joint dietary supplement – Glucosamine is a natural Joint dietary supplement joint which has been effective at easing joint discomfort as well as in increasing flexibility since the past two decades. Typically, glucosamine is taken in combination with chondroitin. Making use of such complementary therapies such as glucosamine in patients with joint arthritis allows reducing the dose of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents.

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What is collagen dietary supplement?

Posted on 27. Dec, 2010 by .


Dietary supplements containing collagen hydrolysate have been found to stimulate collagen synthesis in joint cartilage. Clinical studies with patients suffering from osteoarthritis have shown positive effects of collagen hydrolysate or joint health, such as, pain reduction, reduced medication, improved physical function.

Collagen is the primary structural protein found in the connective tissues in the body. It is fibrous in nature, and its job is to provide connective tissues for joints, tendons, muscles, skin and bones. Are they safe for everyone?

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Knox Gelatin Dietary Supplement

Posted on 27. Dec, 2010 by .


Knox Gelatin Dietary Supplement Drink Mix for Nails, Orange Flavor

NutraMix for Strong Nails is a delicious orange flavored drink mix. It is an excellent way to bolster the strength and vitality of your nails. NutraMix for Strong Nails includes Vitamin C to aid in collagen formation; Biotin, which helps to promote healthy nail growth; and Gelatine, one of the raw materials for collagen, the building blocks for strong, healthy nails.

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Posted on 03. Dec, 2010 by .


Antioxidants protect the body from damage caused by harmful molecules called free radicals. Many experts believe this damage is a factor in the development of blood vessel disease (atherosclerosis), cancer, and other conditions.

Antioxidants are substances that may protect your cells against the effects of free radicals. Free radicals are molecules produced when your body breaks down food, or by environmental exposures like tobacco smoke and radiation. Free radicals can damage cells, and may play a role in heart disease, cancer and other diseases.

You are exposed to free radicals:

Through by-products of normal processes that take place in your body (such as the burning of sugars for energy and the release of digestive enzymes to break down food).
When the body breaks down certain medicines.
Through pollutants.
Antioxidants include some vitamins (such as vitamins C and E), some minerals (such as selenium), and flavonoids, which are found in plants. The best sources of antioxidants are fruits and vegetables. You can find flavonoids in fruits, red wine, and teas. You can also buy antioxidant supplements.

One study showed that using vitamin A, E, and beta carotene supplements may increase your risk of premature death.1 Further study is needed to look at the effects of these antioxidants as well as vitamin C and selenium. It is best to obtain antioxidants from a healthy diet.

What are antioxidants used for?
People use antioxidants to help treat or prevent some medical conditions, such as coronary artery disease (CAD), some cancers, macular degeneration, Alzheimer’s disease, and some arthritis-related conditions.

The treatment of CAD with antioxidant supplements as well as with traditional medicine continues to be researched. Some experts believe antioxidant vitamins may help in treating CAD, although so far studies have not proved this.

Are antioxidants safe?
Until more studies are done, it is best to get your antioxidants from a diet rich in fruits and vegetables rather than from supplements. Taking supplements in high doses can be harmful. No single antioxidant alone can protect the body. Most people should eat 5 to 9 servings of fruits and vegetables each day.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate dietary supplements in the same way it regulates medicines. A dietary supplement can be sold with limited or no research on how well it works.

Always tell your doctor if you are using a dietary supplement or if you are thinking about combining a dietary supplement with your conventional medical treatment. It may not be safe to forgo your conventional medical treatment and rely only on a dietary supplement. This is especially important for women who are pregnant or breast-feeding.

When using dietary supplements, keep in mind the following:

Like conventional medicines, dietary supplements may cause side effects, trigger allergic reactions, or interact with prescription and nonprescription medicines or other supplements you are taking. A side effect or interaction with another medicine or supplement may make your health worse.
How dietary supplements are manufactured may not be standardized. Because of this, how well they work or any side effects they cause may differ among brands or even within different lots of the same brand. The form of a supplement that you buy in health food or grocery stores may not be the same as the form used in research.
Other than for vitamins and minerals, the long-term effects of most dietary supplements are not known

Antioxidant substances include

Vitamin A
Vitamin C
Vitamin E
Antioxidants are found in many foods. These include fruits and vegetables, nuts, grains, and some meats, poultry and fish.

Can antioxidants prevent cancer?
Considerable laboratory evidence from chemical, cell culture, and animal studies indicates that antioxidants may slow or possibly prevent the development of cancer. However, information from recent clinical trials is less clear. In recent years, large-scale, randomized clinical trials reached inconsistent conclusions.

What was shown in previously published large-scale clinical trials?
Five large-scale clinical trials published in the 1990s reached differing conclusions about the effect of antioxidants on cancer. The studies examined the effect of beta-carotene and other antioxidants on cancer in different patient groups. However, beta-carotene appeared to have different effects depending upon the patient population. The conclusions of each study are summarized below.

The first large randomized trial on antioxidants and cancer risk was the Chinese Cancer Prevention Study, published in 1993. This trial investigated the effect of a combination of beta-carotene, vitamin E, and selenium on cancer in healthy Chinese men and women at high risk for gastric cancer. The study showed a combination of beta-carotene, vitamin E, and selenium significantly reduced incidence of both gastric cancer and cancer overall (1).

A 1994 cancer prevention study entitled the Alpha-Tocopherol (vitamin E)/ Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC) demonstrated that lung cancer rates of Finnish male smokers increased significantly with beta-carotene and were not affected by vitamin E (2).

Another 1994 study, the Beta-Carotene and Retinol (vitamin A) Efficacy Trial (CARET), also demonstrated a possible increase in lung cancer associated with antioxidants (3).

The 1996 Physicians’ Health Study I (PHS) found no change in cancer rates associated with beta-carotene and aspirin taken by U.S. male physicians (4).

The 1999 Women’s Health Study (WHS) tested effects of vitamin E and beta-carotene in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease among women age 45 years or older. Among apparently healthy women, there was no benefit or harm from beta-carotene supplementation. Investigation of the effect of vitamin E is ongoing (5).

How might antioxidants prevent cancer?
Antioxidants neutralize free radicals as the natural by-product of normal cell processes. Free radicals are molecules with incomplete electron shells which make them more chemically reactive than those with complete electron shells. Exposure to various environmental factors, including tobacco smoke and radiation, can also lead to free radical formation. In humans, the most common form of free radicals is oxygen. When an oxygen molecule (O2) becomes electrically charged or “radicalized” it tries to steal electrons from other molecules, causing damage to the DNA and other molecules. Over time, such damage may become irreversible and lead to disease including cancer. Antioxidants are often described as “mopping up” free radicals, meaning they neutralize the electrical charge and prevent the free radical from taking electrons from other molecules.

Which foods are rich in antioxidants?
Antioxidants are abundant in fruits and vegetables, as well as in other foods including nuts, grains, and some meats, poultry, and fish. The list below describes food sources of common antioxidants.

Beta-carotene is found in many foods that are orange in color, including sweet potatoes, carrots, cantaloupe, squash, apricots, pumpkin, and mangos. Some green, leafy vegetables, including collard greens, spinach, and kale, are also rich in beta-carotene.

Lutein, best known for its association with healthy eyes, is abundant in green, leafy vegetables such as collard greens, spinach, and kale.

Lycopene is a potent antioxidant found in tomatoes, watermelon, guava, papaya, apricots, pink grapefruit, blood oranges, and other foods. Estimates suggest 85 percent of American dietary intake of lycopene comes from tomatoes and tomato products.

Selenium is a mineral, not an antioxidant nutrient. However, it is a component of antioxidant enzymes. Plant foods like rice and wheat are the major dietary sources of selenium in most countries. The amount of selenium in soil, which varies by region, determines the amount of selenium in the foods grown in that soil. Animals that eat grains or plants grown in selenium-rich soil have higher levels of selenium in their muscle. In the United States, meats and bread are common sources of dietary selenium. Brazil nuts also contain large quantities of selenium.

Vitamin A is found in three main forms: retinol (Vitamin A1), 3,4-didehydroretinol (Vitamin A2), and 3-hydroxy-retinol (Vitamin A3). Foods rich in vitamin A include liver, sweet potatoes, carrots, milk, egg yolks, and mozzarella cheese.

Vitamin C is also called ascorbic acid, and can be found in high abundance in many fruits and vegetables and is also found in cereals, beef, poultry, and fish.

Vitamin E, also known as alpha-tocopherol, is found in almonds, in many oils including wheat germ, safflower, corn, and soybean oils, and is also found in mangos, nuts, broccoli, and other foods.

thank you and references
Blot WJ, Li JY, Taylor PR, et al. Nutrition intervention trials in Linxian, China: supplementation with specific vitamin/mineral combinations, cancer incidence, and disease-specific mortality in the general population. J Natl Cancer Inst 1993;85:1483–91
The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group. The effects of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. N Engl J Med 1994;330:1029–35.

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