Archive for 'Serine'

serine

Posted on 13. Dec, 2010 by .

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Serine is a non-essential amino acid derived from the amino acid glycine. It is important to overall good health, both physical and mental. Serine is especially important to proper functioning of the brain and central nervous system.

Serine helps form the phospholipids needed to make every cell in your body. It is also involved in the function of RNA and DNA, fat and fatty acid metabolism, muscle formation, and the maintenance of a healthy immune system. The proteins used to form the brain, as well as the protective myelin sheaths that cover the nerves, contain serine. Without serine, the myelin sheaths could fray and become less efficient at delivering messages between the brain and nerve endings in the body, essentially short circuiting mental function.

Serine is also needed to produce tryptophan, an amino acid that is used to make serotonin, a mood-determining brain chemical. Both serotonin and tryptophan shortages have been linked to depression, insomnia, confusion, and anxiety. Research suggests that low levels of serine may contribute to chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia (FM).

Serine helps produce immunoglobulins and antibodies for a strong immune system, and also aids in the absorption of creatine, a substance made from amino acids that helps build and maintain all the muscles in the body, including the heart.

L-Serine deficiency is a rare, inherited, metabolic disorder of L-serine biosynthesis. Children with L-serine deficiency present with congenital microcephaly, then go on to develop severe psychomotor retardation and intractable seizures. The outcome of treatment with oral L-serine ranges from improvement of seizure control and well-being in older children to normal psychomotor development in a child who was diagnosed and treated prenatally with L-serine.

Children with apparent neurological disorders are rarely, if ever, tested for a metabolic disorder and unlikely to be tested for L-serine deficiency. It is likely that L-serine deficiency is grossly under-diagnosed. A major goal of the foundation is to educate doctors and parents about the importance of metabolic testing for L-serine deficiency through a simple test of the child’s cerebral spinal fluid.

Children with L-serine deficiency can manifest the following symptoms, or the following terms might be used to describe their symptoms and signs: cerebral palsy, epilepsy, seizures, epileptic encephalopathy , encephalopathy, cortical visual impairment (limited vision due to brain involvement rather than a primary eye disorder), cortical blindness, spastic quadriparesis (spasticity or stiffness and muscle weakness at the same time), infantile spasms, congenital microcephaly (small head size from birth), muscle weakness, hypotonia, poor head control, poor brain growth, white matter abnormalities (brain), spasticity, megaloblastic anemia, failure to thrive, reflux. In particular, the triad of congenital microcephaly, spastic quadriparesis (cerebral palsy) and seizures should be an important clue to test for this disorder.

Serine Deficiency

Serine deficiency symptoms include slow or delayed cognitive and physical skills (psychomotor retardation), seizures and microcephaly. Microcephaly refers to health condition in which the head size is smaller than normal and is caused by underdevelopment of the brain.

WHAT IS PHOSPHATIDYL SERINE (PS)?

PS is a phospholipid that is vital to your brain cells. Phospholipids are molecules containing both amino and fatty acids found in every cell membrane within our bodies. The fatty acids include omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid molecules—essential for life. Actually, PS is universally present in living things from the most simple to the most complex. PS and other phospholipids are structural components of brain neurons that can enhance cell-to-cell communication. PS has many known functions throughout all of our tissues and organs, but is most important as the key building block for the billions of cells that make up our brain. First isolated in 1942, PS is now available as a dietary supplement derived from soy lecithin.

Phosphatidyl Serine is found in all cells but is most highly concentrated in the walls (membranes) of brain cells making up about 70% of its nerve tissue mass. There it aids in the storage, release, and activity of many vital neurotransmitters and their receptors. PS also aids in cell-to-cell communication. PS is involved in the upkeep and restoration of nerve cell membranes. Among its list of functions, PS stimulates the release of dopamine (a mood regulator that also controls physical sensations and movement), increases the production of acetylcholine (necessary for learning and memory), enhances brain glucose metabolism (the fuel used for brain activity), reduces cortisol levels (a stress hormone), and boosts the activity of nerve growth factor (NGF), which oversees the health of cholinergic neurons. Research has shown that dietary supplementation with PS can slow and even reverse the decline of learning, mood, memory, concentration, and word recall related to dementia or age-related cognitive impairment in middle-aged and elderly subjects. PS can slow, halt or reverse the decline of memory and mental function due to aging. PS is one of the best of all drugs and nutritional supplements tested for retarding age associated memory impairment (AAMI).

Clinical research shows that Phosphatidyl Serine is a beneficial and safe dietary supplement, and can be used in any program of improving mental function. Taken orally, PS is rapidly absorbed and readily crosses the blood-brain barrier to reach the brain. PS is derived from soy phospholipids and has a long history of safe use in dietary supplements and foods.
HOW DOES PHOSPHATIDYL SERINE WORK?

PS is far more abundant in the brain than in the other organs, and to date has the most clinical significance as a brain nutrient. Dietary supplementation with PS can benefit brain functions from the most basic to the most sophisticated. PS can slow the loss of brain functions, and in some cases partially rejuvenate them.

Research has shown orally-supplied Phosphatidyl Serine reaches the brain through the systemic and lymph circulation. After reaching the brain it is redistributed to cells and within cell membranes. Research also has shown Phosphatidyl Serine to be responsible for a wide variety of biological effects. Besides improving glucose metabolism within the brain, it can stimulate synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetycholine, improve receptor functioning and thereby restore nerve signal transduction. Restoring proper nerve cell function is thought to be a major reason for the reversal of age associated memory loss. PS is not abundant in common foods, so it is limited in the human diet. Moreover, the body can make it only through a complex series of reactions and with substantial investment of energy. Given orally, PS is rapidly absorbed and readily crosses the blood-brain barrier to reach the brain. There, its sites of action appear to be exclusively in cell membrane.

Membranes are the major work surfaces of all known cells, and PS is a universal cell membrane building block. Nerve cells especially depend on membranes to carry out their specialized functions. The generation of the electrical current, the transmission of the current along the cell, and the relaying of the current across the cell-to-cell chemical synapse are all membrane-driven events. Membrane proteins play key roles in all these processes, and PS is important for regulating the activities of such proteins.

After a quarter century of research with PS on human subjects, laboratory animals, cells in culture and molecules in the test tube, it is clear that this nutrient has profound value to the human brain. PS has been intensively studied for cognitive decline. Substantial amounts of mechanistic, experimental and clinical data are available on PS, and the findings overwhelmingly indicate PS is highly effective and is safe to take.

The fact that PS is an orthomolecule, i.e., intrinsic to all the body’s cells, helps explain its superiority over herbal preparations like Ginkgo Biloba extract, vinpocetine and huperzine, none of which has substantial orthomolecular character and is predictive of its safety for both short-term and long-term use.

PS is present in all our cells, tissues, and organs, and it has profound roles in energetics, repair and renewal. But it is in the brain that PS most shines. PS is a key cell membrane phospholipid, important for the brain cells to make energy via their mitochondrial membrane systems. PS also is essential to the packaging of the nerve transmitters into membrane vesicles, to transmitter release via membrane fusion, and to transmitter actions on receptors embedded in the nerve cell membranes. Altogether, these activities translate into whole-brain effects that explain the documented clinical benefits of PS.

Recently it was discovered that the brain can produce new nerve cells, under the influence of growth factors. In animal experiments PS protected the receptors for nerve growth factor (NGF) against age-related loss, while conserving the existing circuits. This is consistent with its clinical brain revitalization effects.

The premier status of PS as a neuroceutical grows out of decades of controlled clinical application. Its unique biochemistry, metabolism and range of proven benefits take it beyond the drugs and other nutrients that target the brain. For people of all ages, taking PS offers hope for a level of brain sharpness that defies the passing of the years.
WHAT DOES PHOSPHATIDYL SERINE (PS) DO ?

Over 3,000 published research papers and more than 60 clinical trials have established that PS can rejuvenate your brain cell membranes and thereby:

* strengthen your memory
* increase vigilance and attention
* boost learning
* increase mental activity
* intensify concentration
* relieve depression and improve mood
* decrease stress

This is an amazing PET imaging of the brain of a 59-year-old female. The color scale semi-quantitatively indicates regional glucose metabolism at three brain levels, with red being most intense and blue, least intense (see color scale). Upper, before PS; lower, after 500 mg PS daily for three weeks. Metabolism is increased in almost all brain regions. (From Klinkhammer 1990.)

How Does Phosphatidyl Serine Work?

Phosphatidylserine enables your brain cells to metabolize glucose and to release and bind with neurotransmitters, all of which is important to learning, memory and other cognitive functions.

Phosphatidylserine increases communication between cells in your brain by increasing the number of membrane receptor sites for receiving messages. Phosphatidylserine modulates the fluidity of cell membranes—essential to your brain cells’ ability to send and receive chemical communication.

Scientific studies demonstrate that phosphatidylserine restores the brain’s supply and output of acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter so important to memory, and so may turn back the clock in an aging brain.

Phosphatidylserine can increase the availability of endogenous (that which is created within your cells) choline for de novo synthesis and release (while similar treatments with phosphatidylcholine had no effect).

Phosphatidylserine also stimulates your brain to produce dopamine and this is likely why patients diagnosed with clinical depression have shown marked improvement in their symptoms as a result of taking phosphatidylserine daily. Reduced dopamine levels are also thought to contribute to attention deficit disorder and this natural substance has proven to be an effective therapeutic agent for ADD and ADHD.

Studies examining athletes involved in cycling, weight training and endurance running show that phosphatidylserine can speed recovery, prevent muscle soreness and help athletes to feel their best during the rigors of training.

We also know that phosphatidylserine is important in bone matrix formation, testicular function, beat coordination of the heart, hormone secretion by the adrenal glands and cell repair and removal by the immune system.

Modern science has only begun to understand how important phosphatidylserine is to our bodies. After all, it’s present in every type of cell in our body and the membrane proteins that it activates are important in all cells. Top
Why Do I Need Phosphatidyl Serine?

Because of stress, aging, and our modern eating habits and food-production methods.

Stress: Like burning a candle burning at both ends, stress increases the demand for phosphatidylserine and depletes your phosphatidylserine levels at the same time.

Aging: The elderly particularly benefit from taking phosphatidyl serine. While aging increases our brain’s need for phosphatidylserine it also creates digestive and metabolic inefficiency so that it’s simply not possible to get enough phosphatidylserine in your diet. Considerable research has proven that Leci-PS improves age-associated memory impairment and continued use prevents age-related decay of brain functions.

Modern Diets: Modern low-fat and low-cholesterol diets lack up to 150 mg per day of dietary phosphatidylserine. A vegetarian diet may undersupply as much as 200 to 250 mg per day. Other eating styles also create a demand for more phosphatidyl serine. For example, a diet deficient in omega-3 fatty acids may reduce the amount of phosphatidylserine in the brain by 28% and thereby impair your brain’s ability to form, store, process and remember.

Modern Food Production: To make matters worse, modern industrial production of fats and oils decreases all of the natural phospholipids—including phosphatidylserine

Human Clinical Studies

A number of human clinical studies have also been conducted using PS to support healthy brain activity. In a review of the effects of PS supplementation, the authors suggest that PS may be effective at enhancing cognitive function and supporting mild memory problems associated with aging based on the results seen in both animal and human studies.2

One of the first double-blind controlled studies on PS was published in 1986, and consisted of 35 people with mild memory problems associated with aging taking either 100mg of animal derived PS three times per day or placebo. The subjects were analyzed with tests designed to assess problems found in activities of daily life. They were tested after one week and six weeks of taking the supplement, and then three weeks after discontinuing. Although statistical significance was reached only in one test (The Peri Scale, a measure of mood, cognitive function, behavior and activities of daily living), the subjects taking the PS showed positive trends towards improvement on all three tests compared to the controls.14

Two double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of PS have been conducted by T. H. Crook, PhD, from the Memory Assessment Clinics (MAC) of Bethesda, Maryland. Both were multi-center studies.

The first study a double-blind, placebo-controlled study looked at 149 people supplementing with PS over 6 months. The subjects were given 200mg of PS or placebo orally for 3 months. Nine standard tests for brain function were used to analyze the subjects before and after the treatment, and then again at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months (after discontinuing the treatment). They found that in the group most impacted by memory problems associated with aging there was a benefit of PS on a number of the cognitive tests performed, even up to 6 months after the discontinuation of the supplement.11

In the second study (1992) by Dr Crook, 51 subjects were studied. The average subject age was 71 years. Again subjects were given 300mg PS versus placebo daily for 12 weeks. In this study, the PS group demonstrated significant cognitive improvement throughout the entire 12 week period. Again a sub group was identified (those with relatively mild cognitive impairment at the outset). This group showed significant improvement in their ability to recall names, locations, details of events from the previous day and week, as well as ability to maintain concentration.(12)

In another study, PS was given to 494 elderly patients who had mild memory problems associated with aging. They were given 300 mg per day or placebo for six months. The individuals were examined at the beginning of the study, after three months of supplementation, and at six months.7 Using a standardized scale to assess changes in behavior and cognitive function, they found statistically significant enhancement of cognitive function in the group who took PS. There didn’t appear to be any side effects associated with the use of PS in this study.

A similar but shorter placebo-controlled study again looked at the effectiveness of PS in individuals with mild memory problems associated with aging. It involved 163 patients who again took 100 mg PS three times daily. They took the supplement for 12 weeks, and were evaluated every three weeks. The benefits they found included enhancement of memory and name recall, learning, and ability to concentrate compared to the control group. The subjects tolerated the Phosphatidyl Serine well and no side effects were reported.11

Yet another trial, this one open-label (both the health provider and subjects were aware of the supplement given) looked at PS from plant sources on 15 people with mild memory problems associated with aging. The study lasted for 12 weeks, and the participants were evaluated by standard memory and learning tests 3 times (at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks). They were all given 100mg of PS, in PS enriched lecithin capsules, three times per day. They found that the subjects performed significantly better on most of the tests after supplementing with PS compared to before supplementation, and 9 subjects reported improvement of their memory in day to day tasks. Although this study was open-label, the results fit in well with previous studies using Phosphatidyl Serine.64

Animal Studies

Research has shown the ability of PS to enhance mental function. Studies in animals suggest that PS can positively impact learning ability. In one such study, PS derived from soybean lecithin was evaluated in mice for its effect on chemically-induced impaired learning. The PS was able to significantly reverse the learning impairment in mice.60 Another study evaluated the effects of bovine, soybean, and egg-derived PS on behavioral tests in middle-aged rats.61 The results showed that PS from both bovine and soy was able to enhance mental functioning in rats undergoing an active avoidance task (a laboratory measure of learning ability). No effect was seen in the groups given either the egg-derived PS or the control.

Another group of researchers looked at the effectiveness of soy compared to bovine PS in aged rats forced to perform a memory task known as the Morris water-maze test, a standardized lab measure of spatial memory function.62 The rats were fed soy derived PS at 60 mg/kg for 60 days. This significantly enhanced performance of the task by aged rats compared to control rats, indicating beneficial effects on memory function. The results were similar with PS from bovine sources.

Scientists have suggested that PS protects brain tissue by a novel mechanism.63 A controlled study was done on rats where they were given PS injections at three different points in time. They were then injected with placebo or LPS, a chemical agent known to have a negative effect on nerve transmission in the hippocampus. Three hours later, rats were assessed for their ability to retain long-term potentiation. At the end of the experiment, the hippocampal area of the rat brains was looked at. Pretreatment with PS helped the animals overcome the effects of LPS and support the health of brain tissue. The rats treated with PS were also found to have higher levels of the protective anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 than control animals. They found that giving IL-10 also overcame the effects of LPS in a manner similar to PS. Thus the group of researchers concluded that one of the mechanisms of brain protection by Phosphatidyl Serine may be its ability to increase IL-10 production.
NUTRITIONAL STUDIES AND LITERATURE

Our brains normally manufacture enough Phosphatidyl Serine (PS) to keep us in top mental order. However, when we reach middle age, our levels of PS begin to decline — an effect that is worsened by deficiencies of other essential fatty acids, folic acid or vitamin B12. Because PS is necessary for effective neurotransmission, PS deficiency is linked to mental impairment, including Alzheimer’s and non-Alzheimer’s dementia, depression and Parkinson’s disease among middle-aged and elderly people.

Since PS deficiency is associated with these common age-related conditions, many experts believe that PS supplements can help improve, or even reverse, symptoms. As Elizabeth Somer further explains in her book, Food & Mood, “PS supplements restock brain cell membranes, boosting nerve chemical activity such as dopamine and serotonin, stimulating nerve cell growth, lowering levels of the stress hormones, possibly generating new connections between cells, and stirring activity in all brain centers, especially higher brain centers such as the cortex, hypothalamus and pituitary gland.”

According to the 2002 Bottom Line Yearbook, “Phosphatidyl Serine is the only medication that’s been proven to reverse age-related memory loss in clinical studies. “Furthermore, these clinical studies are overwhelmingly positive about the amazing abilities of PS.”

In Alternative Cures, Bill Gottlieb reports that one study demonstrated that PS can reverse the chronological age of neurons by as much as 12 years. Of course, this has enormous implications for people suffering from age-related dementia.

A recent study on men aged 50 and older with non-Alzheimer’s dementia found that a three-month regimen of 300 milligrams of PS daily was enough treatment to drastically improve mental function, according to Dr. Russell L. Blaylock’s book, Excitotoxins. In one study, Alzheimer’s patients experienced cognitive improvements after receiving only 100 milligrams of PS for three months, while another study demonstrated that 400 milligrams of PS per day led to short-term neurological and psychological improvements in people with Alzheimer’s.

The abilities of PS look so promising that Phosphatidyl Serine expert and author Professor Parris Kidd calls it “the single best means for conserving memory and other higher brain functions as we age.”

Scientists create PS by putting soy lecithin through an enzymatic process that changes Phosphatidyl Choline into Phosphatidyl Serine. After reviewing more than 3,000 peer-reviewed research papers on PS, Professor Kidd asserts, “The remarkable benefits of PS and its safety in use are now established beyond doubt,” In his Vitamin and Mineral Encyclopedia, Dr. Hendler writes that PS “does not appear to have any adverse side effects.”
IS PHOSPHATIDYL SERINE SAFE?

Yes! The use of PS is well validated through clinical research and proven safe in standard toxicology tests. From the large number of human studies conducted PS developed a flawless safety record. First, it has proven compatible with a wide array of medications including: antacids, anti-hypertensives, anti-inflammatories, anti-ulcer and mucolytic agents, diuretics, antit-hrombotics, hypoglycemics, anti-arrthymics, insulin, calcium channel blockers, calcitonin, chemotherapy drugs and other prescription medications. Second, PS is well tolerated by elderly patients with chronic diseases such as cerebrovascular, artery and vein disorders, heart diseases, high blood pressure, diabetes, lung diseases, digestive system diseases and arthritis. A group of researchers reported on the excellent safety profile of soy derived PS.17 In this study, they found no significant differences between treatment and control groups when they looked at a number of blood safety parameters, vital signs, and subjective complaints. Thus they concluded that PS is a safe nutritional supplement for the elderly at least up to 600mg per day in divided doses. PS has been tested with subjects of all ages and conditions, ranging from hyperactive children to elderly persons suffering from Alzheimer’s disease, in sports and non sports applications, over periods up to 6 months. Phosphatidyl Serine has been proven to be the only cognition-enhancing supplement that lacked unwanted side effects. In addition, the extensive human and animal studies have found no danger from long-term supplemental intake of PS- one study tested dogs fed up to 70 grams of PS per day (approximately 1000 times recommended human consumption) and found no serious side effects
PHOSPHATIDYL SERINE CAN REDUCE THE ADVERSE IMPACTS OF STRESS ON OUR BODY AND MIND

Those aggravating things that go wrong in the day and those irritating things that go bump in the night – disrupting routines and interrupting sleep – all have a cumulative effect on your brain, especially its ability to remember and learn.

As science gains greater insight into the consequences of stress on the brain, the picture that emerges is not a pretty one. A chronic overreaction to stress overloads the brain with powerful hormones that are intended only for short-term duty in emergency situations. Their cumulative effect damages and kills brain cells.

What do we do when we’re down in the dumps? While plopping down on the sofa with a snack might be an easy solution, it comes with a price. Not only does stress interfere with mood, but it can also inspire inactivity, over-eating and sluggishness. This is due largely in part to cortisol – a catabolic hormone released by the adrenal glands in response to emotional stress. Studies done to determine the effectiveness of PS on cortisol suppression have shown that it works by suppressing the hormones that produce cortisol. As a result, supplementing with PS may be able to help reduce the amount of stress related hormones that ultimately leave us singing the blues.
COMPATIBILITY WITH MEDICATIONS

PS has proven compatible with a wide array of medications including: antacids, anti-hypertensives, anti-inflammatories, anti-ulcer and mucolytic agents, diuretics, anti-thrombotics, hypoglycemics, anti-arrthymics, insulin, calcium channel blockers, calcitonin, chemotherapy drugs and other prescription medications. PS is well tolerated by elderly patients with chronic diseases such as cerebrovascular, artery and vein disorders, heart diseases, high blood pressure, diabetes, lung diseases, digestive system diseases and arthritis.

MEMORY LOSS OR ALZHEIMER’S?

Even though memory loss is one of the earliest symptoms of Alzheimer’s and other dementias, there are clear differences between what scientists call “age-related memory loss” (ARML) and dementia—both in the symptoms that might be experienced and in the underlying biological changes in the brain. A momentary loss of memory is most probably not a sign of Alzheimer’s, or if so it’s a very distant one. People between 65 and 75 face only a 4% chance of suffering from that sad, destructive disease, vs. a frightening 50% chance for those over 85 (see Alzheimer’s box). Yet almost all of us will be tripped up by forgetfulness from time to time as we age. Memory may begin to get a little shaky even in our late 30s, but the decline is so gradual that we don’t start to stumble until we’re 50ish. While dementia involves a broad loss of cognitive abilities, ARML is primarily a deficit of declarative memory. Forgetting where you parked your car can happen to everyone occasionally, but forgetting what your car looks like may be a cause for concern. Brain researchers are working hard to pin down where forgetfulness ends and Alzheimer’s begins. The question is a difficult one, and a subject of much debate among experts in brain aging. One important clue from brain research is that people with Alzheimer’s are able to retain significantly less information after a period of delay than healthy people. That means that new information may be learned, but little will be remembered after a delay of even a few hours.

Other studies have suggested that Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), a condition marked by repeated lapses in short-term memory, may in fact be early-stage Alzheimer’s in some patients—but certainly not in all. Distinct changes in memory that occur over the course of a year or two, and can be verified with psychological testing, are the hallmarks of MCI. Such changes may at first be mild enough that daily functions are not disrupted and are often first noticed by a loved one. If you or someone you love is experiencing significant changes in memory or persistent forgetfulness that interferes with work or home responsibilities, seek a doctor’s help. Stress and fatigue can affect memory, and even if MCI is diagnosed, there may be a cause other than Alzheimer’s, such as side effects from medications, depression, stroke or mini-strokes, or a head injury.

STATIN USE AND MEMORY LOSS

Some people experience memory loss, report an inability to concentrate as well, and feel that they are developing Alzheimer’s disease when taking statin drugs. This memory loss may be so extreme as to be amnesia that lasts for 6 to 12 hours. These types of problems are known as cognitive defects. Other people claim to experience mood swings and other behavioral changes when taking statins. These differences in behavior are not just subjective feelings on the part of the individual but tend to be corroborated by family members.

There are cases of cognitive difficulty that have been reported to the FDA as adverse side effects to statins. A systematic review of the cases reported to the FDA determined that approximately half of the memory loss problems occurred within 60 days of starting on statin therapy, although memory problems were reported after taking a statin drug for just 5 days. Fortunately most people return to normal after discontinuing the statin drug. The time until recovery appears to be related to the amount of time before the cognitive symptoms appeared; that is, the longer it took for the symptoms to appear, the longer it took for the person to recover. However, a small group may continue to suffer with cognitive problems, perhaps indefinitely. (For a discussion of side effects see www.spacedoc.net/statin_side_effects.html
PHOSPHATIDYL CHOLINE (PC)

Phosphatidyl Choline (PC) is included in the Advanced Formula together with Phosphatidyl Serine (See order information). It is crucial in the maintenance of membrane fluidity, a key to the normal and healthy working of our cells, and is a major source of the nutrient choline. Choline is involved in the synthesis of acetylcholine, a molecule fundamental to the proper functioning of the nervous system. PC has been found to be beneficial in a number of neurological conditions and in the repair of cell membranes, particularly in the liver. Four of the five prescription drugs for Alzheimer’s that are currently on the American Market are cholinesterase inhibitors that enhance cholinergic function – liberating acetylcholine by blocking the enzyme responsible for the degradation of acetylcholine. PC is a major constituent of lecithin and is necessary to form acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter in the human central nervous system. It is used for treatment of depression, dementia, Alzheimers disease and improving mental performance. It has also been successfully used in the treatment of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

It helps to control a number of nerve cell functions including: the conduction of nerve impulses; the accumulation, storage and release of neurotransmitters and the maintenance of normal cellular functions. PS is an important nutrient involved in keeping the brain cell membranes intact. Membranes are what make up the surfaces of cells, especially nerve cells. It is these membranes that selectively allow certain essential nutrients to pass into the cell for normal body functions including memory.

HOW LONG DOES IT TAKE TO WORK

Most people start to notice positive results within two to three months. It may take longer for those with more severe memory problems to notice improvement. Typically, the longer you take PS the better the results.
WHAT’S IN IT

Suggested 3 capsules daily initially.
60 capsules – Amount per capsule

Phosphatydil Serine

100 mg

*

Phosphatydil Choline

35 mg

*
* Daily Value not established
Other Ingredients: Gelatin capsule.

Phosphatydil Serine is a soy lecithin derived product. Lecithin is transformed into PS utilizing enzymatic reactions. PS is a vital component of all cell membranes and is found in particularly high concentrations within the brain. It serves to maintain the integrity and function of the cell membranes. It also allows communication among nerve cells, promotes proper nutrient movement across the cell membrane and aids proper release and reception of neurotransmitters in the brain.

Phosphatydil Choline is crucial in the maintenance of membrane fluidity, a key to the normal and healthy working of our cells, and is a major source of the nutrient choline. Choline is involved in the synthesis of acetylcholine, a molecule fundamental to the proper functioning of the nervous system.
ADVANCED FORMULA PHOSPHATIDYL SERINE DOSAGE

Daily dosage of Advanced Formula is 3 capsules – (one capsule, 3 times daily taken with meals ) . Begin supplementation with an initial dose of 3 capsules per day and then this can be reduced to a maintenance dose of 2 capsules per day after six to twelve months.

thank you and references
http://www.vitaminstuff.com
http://www.serine.org/
http://www.phosphatidylserine.net/
http://www.memorylossinstitute.com/

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